Introduction to Computer Science

Introduction of Computer

A computer is a machine that can be programmed to accept data (input), process it into useful information (output), and store it away (in a secondary storage device) for safekeeping or later reuse. The processing of input to output is directed by the software but performed by the hardware.

What is Computational Thinking?

Computational thinking is the process of breaking down a complex problem into easy to understand parts. Essentially, computational thinking helps you break down a problem into bite-sized pieces that a computer could understand and ultimately help solve.

The Four Pillars of Computational Thinking

  • Decomposition — breaking down a problem into smaller parts
  • Pattern Recognition — looking for similarities within a problem
  • Abstracation — ignoring unimportant information and only focussing on important information
  • Algorithms — developing the step-by-step rules to follow in order to solve the problem

Foundations of Computer Science

1. Binary & ASCII

Internally, computers represent all data using bits: Each bit is an individual atom of memory that can be either off or on, which we interpret as 0 (off) or 1 (on).

2. Algorithm

An algorithm is a set of instructions that describes how to get something done. Algorithms can be designed using pseudocode and flow charts. They are written using statements and expressions. Computer Science.

3. Pseudocode

In computer science, pseudocode is a plain language description of the steps in an algorithm or another system. Pseudocode often uses structural conventions of a normal programming language, but is intended for human reading rather than machine reading.

4. Memory

Computer memory is any physical device capable of storing information temporarily, like RAM (random access memory), or permanently, like ROM (read-only memory). Memory devices utilize integrated circuits and are used by operating systems, software, and hardware.



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